1854 : Helmholtz’s On the Interaction of Natural Forces

Helmholtz declared that, from the empirical and theoretical data thus accumulated, perpetual motion is an impossibility, and thereby asserted that all of nature has a fixed amount of force. He added that, in following the consequences of Carnot’s findings, this also necessitates that all of this energy will eventually reach equilibrium across the universe and grant it “eternal death.”

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